Case Studies | Overview

Reentry Trajectories

Simulating Reentry Trajectories into the Mars Atmosphere


To a galaxy far, far away! Embarking on a journey through space demands precision and innovation. In this case study, we delve into the intricacies of spacecraft re-entry into the Mars atmosphere, comparing numerical methods with real data from the Viking reentry capsule.

For more than half a century, nations across the globe have been sending astronauts into space. However, ensuring the spacecraft lands successfully and astronauts return safely remains a major concern. Engineers must create vehicles that can withstand extreme heat and pressure during re-entry. Additionally, it is crucial to conduct in-depth research and comprehend the aerodynamics, deceleration, and trajectory dynamics involved in the re-entry process.

This tech brief presents a comparison between numerical methods for calculating lift and drag coefficients during reentry into the Mars atmosphere and experimental data that was obtained from the Viking reentry capsule. This detailed analysis offers valuable insights into the accuracy and limitations of these numerical methods. You will find a detailed description of the motivation for numerical modeling of re-entry vehicles, the computation methodology used, the challenges of modeling atmospheric chemistry, the use of Fidelity Pointwise unstructured meshing, and of 2 case studies: the RAM C-II research probe and the Viking 1 Lander.

Machine Learning Optimisation

Machine Learning Optimisation of a Low-Pressure Steam Turbine Stage

AI | Machine Learning | Turbomachinery | Optimisation

Large language models have made AI/ML front-page news, but, as with so many computational technologies, the CFD industry has been breaking ground in this field for a long time, and Cadence Fidelity CFD software was one of those groundbreakers.

In this article, we will explore how to optimize a low-pressure (LP) steam turbine stage with Fidelity Fine Turbo and Fidelity Fine Design3D products.

Ford Turbocharger Compressor

Robust Design Optimisation of a Ford Turbocharger Compressor

Compressor | Turbocharger | Optimisation | Robust Design

In this customer case, we describe a multi-disciplinary optimisation of a turbocharger compressor from Ford Motor Company. Accounting for uncertainties in the optimisation process resulted in designs that are up to 48% less sensitive to manufacturing variations and operating uncertainties, leading to significantly more stable performance.

LeadingEDGE Predicts Full-Scale Ship Performance

LeadingEDGE Predicts Full-Scale Ship Performance of Lloyd’s Register Regal

Ship Performance | Marine | Naval Architecture | Design | Full-Scale | Open Water | Propeller | Self-propulsion

LeadingEDGE used Fine™/Marine for full-scale ship performance simulation of the Lloyd’s Register benchmark test case. The project was aimed at accelerating ship hull design and providing time- and cost-effective alternatives to model testing.

OPRA Gas Turbines

Gas Dispersion Analysis and Explosion Protection of a Gas Turbine

Gas Turbine | Grid Generation | Marine Application | Turbomachinery

A good mesh is one of the fundamentals to run the CFD analysis successfully. Cadence’s meshing suite significantly reduced our meshing time and improved the mesh quality resulting in better CFD simulations.” OPRA Turbines International BV.

What F1 Teaches Us About Aerodynamics

Formula 1: We Don’t Want Flying Cars

Aerodynamics| Computational Fluid Dynamics | F1

What Would Life Be Like without Aerodynamics?
Aerodynamics play a major role in our everyday lives. The same goes for Formula 1. Find out how aerodynamics affects our lifes and cars here.

Cavitation Modelling

How to Tackle Cavitation in Pump and Propeller Designs with CFD

Pumps | Propeller | Cavitation

Cavitation is a phenomenon in which rapid changes in pressure in a fluid lead to the formation of vapor-filled cavities or bubbles in places where the pressure is relatively low. It can lead to structural damage due to the bubbles imploding when subjected to higher pressure, but it can also cause instabilities and increased noise. Still, it is one of the most challenging topics CFD engineers must tackle. It occurs in many sectors, such as marine propellers, hydrofoils, torpedos, pumps, etc. Many publications cover the subject, sometimes from another point of view, starting from cavitation inception to its actual physical modeling, using pragmatic approaches or more sophisticated models. With this blog article, Cadence would like to share some of its know-how, summarizing state-of-the-art CFD technologies for cavitation prediction and covering different applications and CFD features to answer the engineer’s needs.

Optimisation Liquid Hydrogen Turbopump

Optimisation of the Liquid Hydrogen Turbopump of the Vulcain Rocket Engines

Aerospace | OMNIS™/Turbo | OMNIS™/Open-DBS | Openlabs™ | OMNIS™/Autogrid | OMNIS™/Hexpress

For more than 20 years now, ArianeGroup trusts NUMECA’s software tools for the design, analysis and optimisation of the Liquid Hydrogen Turbopump of the Vulcain® rocket engine and its successors.

Meshing Time Reduction

Honda Automobile Explains How They Save CPU Time with HEXPRESS™/Hybrid

Automotive | Grid Generation | HEXPRESS™/Hyprid

“We massively invested in NUMECA solutions more than 2 years ago, and are very satisfied with the level of precision they provide us.“ Dr.Takiguchi, Chief Engineer at Honda Automobile R&D Center.

Multi-Disciplinary Optimisation

Multi-Disciplinary Optimisation of a FORD Turbocharger Compressor Design

Automotive | Turbomachinery | Grid Generation | AutoBlade™ | AutoGrid5™ | FINE™/Turbo | FINE™/Design3D

Numeca’s FINE™/Design3D offers the right solution for the multi-disciplinary optimisation of a FORD turbocharger compressor design.

Acoustic Analysis

Side Mirror Noise with Adaptive Spectral Reconstruction

Automotive | Acoustics | FINE™/Open | FINE™/Acoustics

A new method called Adaptive Spectral Reconstruction (ASR) for thestochastic reconstruction of broadband aeroacoustic sources starting from steady CFD analyses is presented and applied to the evaluation of the noise radiated by a model automotive side mirror.

Aerodynamic Boat Design

Ultra-Fast and Fuel Efficient Aerodynamic Boat Design by A2V with FINE™/Marine

Marine | Hydro | HEXPRESS™ | FINE™/Marine

Computational Fluids Dynamics (CFD) is the core of the design approach of this vessel. With NUMECA’s software FINE™/Marine, A2V relied entirely on simulation during the design of the fully instrumented 10.5m prototype.

Wind Loads

Validation of Wind Loads on a Slender Vessel Using CFD by DAMEN & NUMECA

Marine | Hydro | HEXPRESS™/Hybrid | FINE™/Marine

DAMEN and NUMECA develop a CFD methodology to proof a vessel has sufficient transversal stability to resist over-rolling in severe side winds.

Planing Hull Resistance

Marintek Chooses FINE™/Marine for Planing Hull Resistance Curve Prediction

Marine | Hydro | HEXPRESS™ | FINE™/Marine

For the prediction of the resistance curve of a planing hull and validation against model tests, Marintek used FINE™/Marine and OMNIS™/Hexpress in this user case. Read all about it here.

Propeller Cavitation

Numerical Simulations of the Cavitating and Non-Cavitating Flow around the Postdam Propeller Test Case

Marine | Hydro | HEXPRESS™ | FINE™/Marine

Numerous studies based on experiments or computations have been carried out to investigate propeller open water characteristics. Most studies only consider the case of a propeller in straight ahead flow. However, under real conditions, a working propeller operates behind a ship usually in a complex wake, so that the propeller shows quite different hydrodynamic performance.
In this paper, the cavitating performance and open water performance of the SMP’15 propeller are numerically simulated using the flow solver ISIS-CFD.


Boom Supersonic partners with NUMECA

Aerospace | FINE™/Open

NUMECA International today announced a new partnership with Boom Supersonic (Boom), an innovative company building history’s fastest supersonic airliner.

Full Engine Simulation

Fully-coupled CFD Engine Simulations

Aerospace | Automotive | Turbomachinery | HVAC | AutoGrid5™ | HEXPRESS™/Hybrid | FINE™/Turbo | FINE™/Open

The development of a full-engine 3D fluid dynamics simulation framework, from compressor inlet to exhaust hood, using one single tool.

Aerodynamic Prediction

NUMECA contributes to JAXA APC-III Workshop using FINE™/Open for Aerodynamic Prediction

Aerospace | Grid Generation | Multi-Purpose | FINE™/Open

Aerodynamic Prediction Challenge (APC) is a series of workshops organised by the JAXA with the aim of tracking the progress of CFD tools with respect to challenges faced in aeronautical applications.

Gust Modelling

The AeroGust Project: Aeroelastic Gust Modelling

Aerospace | Wind Energy | Multi Purpose | FINE™/Open

The importance of accurately calculating the way an aircraft reacts to gusts and turbulences early on in the design process.

Propeller Optimisation

Pipistrel reduces by 6% the Energy Consumption of an Electrical Aircraft by Optimising its Propeller with FINE™/Turbo

Aerospace | Turbomachinery | Grid Generation | AutoGrid5™ | FINE™/Turbo

In the race to more environmentally friendly electrical aircrafts, Pipistrel designs a propeller specially adapted for exploiting in-flight power recuperation using CFD optimisation.

Space Launch Innovation

Space Launch Innovation at Masten Space Systems with NUMECA Software

Aerospace | Grid Generation | Multi-Purpose | AutoBlade™ | HEXPRESS™/Hybrid | FINE™/Open

NUMECA-USA has worked closely with Masten Aerodynamics Lead, Allan Grosvenor, and his team to develop an HPC-driven workflow that enables concept development, evolution, and optimisation, of vehicle configuration that takes into consideration aerodynamic performance, control, loads and aerothermal heating, with simultaneous trajectory optimisation.

Multi-stage Compressor Optimisation

Design Optimisation of a Multi-stage Compressor

Turbomachinery | HVAC | Automotive | Aerospace | AutoGrid5™ | IGG™ | FINE™/Turbo | FINE™/Design3D

Entechmach optimises the design of a compressor to improve its performance realizing a 6.5% reduction in power consumption of the compressor.

Steady Turbomachinery Simulations

Modeling the Rotor-Stator Interface in Steady Turbomachinery Simulations

Turbomachinery | HVAC | Automotive | Aerospace | FINE™/Turbo

The goal of turbomachinery CFD simulations is to predict flow behavior in adjacent rotating and non-rotating blade rows. The link between these rotating and stationary frames of reference is called the Rotor-Stator interface.

Accurate Impeller-volute Interaction

Accurate Impeller-volute Interaction in Turbochargers

Turbomachinery | Automotive | HVAC | Aerospace | FINE™/Turbo

Turbochargers are currently ubiquitous in automobiles. It is nearly impossible to find a new Diesel vehicle without turbocharging and direct injection. Gasoline cars have been also following suit for the past few years. Regulations are pushing for lower emissions and the way to achieve this has been downsizing and using turbocharging to offset the lower power density of a smaller motor.

Tonal Noise Analysis

Analysis of Tonal Noise Emissions (Hochschule Trier)

Turbomachinery | HVAC | Automotive | Aerospace | FINE™/Turbo | FINE™/Acoustics | AutoGrid5™

NUMECA’s software tools were applied to resolve the unsteady flow field in a centrifugal compressor and to conduct an analysis of the tonal noise emissions in the surroundings of the machine.

Prediction of the unsteady Flow

Accurate and reliable Prediction of the unsteady Flow in a Radial Turbine

Turbomachinery | Grid Generation | HVAC | Automotive | Aerospace | AutoGrid5™ | FINE™/Turbo

Developing a workflow for accurate, reliable and affordable prediction of forced response vibrations in radial turbines, taking into account mistuning effects.

Transient Flow

Transient Flow in a Multi-Piston Pump

Pumps | Hydro | OMNIS™/LB

CREMHyG Lab collaborates with industrial companies to develop the future of hydroelectric energy. For the simulation of multi-piston pumps, they decided to use NUMECA’s Lattice Boltzmann solver OMNIS™/LB, as they needed a solution well adapted for complex geometries and complicated displacements.”

Full-scale CFD Simulation

Full-scale CFD Simulations of the SA Agulhas II

Marine | HEXPRESS™ | FINE™/Marine

The Sound and Vibration Group (SVRG) at Stellenbosch University is investigating the seakeeping of the SA Agulhas II (SAAII, Figure 1), South Africa’s polar research and…

Design and Optimisation of an Inline Pump

Design and Optimisation of an Inline Pump for Marine Applications

Hydro Energy and Pumps | Turbomachinery | Optimisation | AutoBlade™ | AutoGrid5™ | HEXPRESS™ | FINE™/Open | FINE™/Design3D

First different levels of detail in modelling “Conjugate Heat Transfer” (CHT) are conducted by considering different domains using a fully structured approach. Second the meshing and simulation strategy comparing a structured and hybrid approach are investigated.

Unusual Turbine Architecture

A somewhat unusual Turbine Architecture (OTH-AW)

Turbomachinery | Grid Generation | IGG™ | AutoGrid5™ | FINE™/Turbo

You think you’ve seen them all? Challenge accepted! Enjoy some insight into the latest projects of Prof. Dr. Andreas P. Weiß and his team at the OTH Amberg-Weiden – the so called “Elektra-Turbine”. Supersonic nozzles, shock waves, unfortunately far to much entropy production – and yet gorgeous!

Robust Design Optimisation

Propeller Optimisation

Turbomachinery | AutoGrid5™ | FINE™/Turbo | FINE™/Design3D

The goal of this case is to optimise the shape of the propeller, but at the same time reduce the impact of manufacturing variability on the performances. This is of particular importance for marine applications, where even small performance drops during operation can have significant financial impact through increased operational costs. A standard (deterministic) optimisation is compared with a robust optimisation, taking these manufacturing uncertainties into account.

Conjugate Heat Transfer

Numerical Modelling of Heat Transfer in a Radial Compressor

Turbomachinery | AutoGrid5™ | OMNIS™/HEXPRESS | FINE™/Turbo | FINE™/Open

In the following, the workflow for reliable temperature field prediction is presented within the simulation of a radial compressor, the SRV4.

AutoSeal Titanic

AutoSeal – From CAD or STL to watertight Geometry in less than a Minute

Marine | Grid Generation | OMNIS™/HEXPRESS | HEXPRESS™/Hybrid

The best approach currently present on the market for preparing the most complex geometries – even the Titanic goes watertight in no more then 50 seconds!

AutoSeal Automotive

HONDA testifies a major Breakthrough in Meshing Speed with NUMECA’s AutoSeal and HEXPRESS™/Hybrid

Automotive | Grid Generation | OMNIS™/HEXPRESS | HEXPRESS™/Hybrid

HONDA has been using OMNIS™/Hexpress for many years now for their automotive designs, and the AutoSeal technology made a real difference for them.

Optimisation EGR

Renault: Aerodynamic optimisation of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) for car compressors

Automotive | Turbomachinery | Optimisation | Meshing | AutoGrid5™ | HEXPRESS™/Hybrid | FINE™/Design3D

Renault evaluates the efficiency of their turbo compressors through fluid dynamics analysis with NUMECA.

Rotating Wheels

The World Solar Challenge - Aerodynamic simulation of rotating wheels in a solar car

Automotive | Grid Generation | External Aerodynamics | OMNIS™/Hexpress | FINE™/Open

One of the most important objectives of solar-powered car development is to minimize power consumption by reducing drag. Team Agoria used OMNIS™ to find the optimum design for their car within the limits of the competition.

Comparison of Numerical Schemes

Aerodynamic coefficients of a generic missile geometry

Aerospace | LDFSS | OMNIS™/HEXPRESS | FINE™/Open

This study demonstrates the application of NUMECA Software on a generic missile, the ANF (Army-Navy Basic Finner). It is a typical test geometry, meaning that there is plenty of reference data available to the public, making it ideal for comparison and validation of various numeric methods.

Optimisation for Reusable Spacecraft

Masten Space Systems: Reactive flow and heat transfer optimisation for reusable spacecraft

Aerospace | Optimisation | Multi Physics | Combustion | Heat Transfer | OMNIS™/HEXPRESS | FINE™/Open

Masten Space Systems is using OMNIS™/Open-DBS with OpenLabs™ – NUMECA’s unstructured multi-purpose CFD solver package – for the design and analysis of various elements of reusable spacecraft and lunar vehicles.

Turbocharger Compressor Optimisation

Toyota Motorsports: Optimisation of a Turbocharger Compressor for Motorsport Applications

Automotive | Turbomachinery | Optimisation | Compressor | Turbocharger | FINE™/Design3D | AutoGrid5™ | FINE™/Turbo

Multi-disciplinary and multi-objective performance map optimisation of a turbocharger compressor for motorsport applications.

Trim Optimisation

Reducing fuel usage with ship trim optimisation in FINE™/Marine

Trim | Marine | Ship Design | FINE™/Marine

Ship trim optimisation has recently gained enormous momentum in the field of naval architecture. See how the unique features of FINE™/Marine contributed to obtaining a database of optimal trim angles quickly and with high accuracy.

Sonic Boom

Fluid dynamics investigation of the sonic boom on a supersonic aircraft concept

Aircraft | Supersonic | HEXPRESS™/Hybrid | FINE™/Open

The use of computational fluid dynamics in the field of supersonic aeronautics significantly cuts the time to market and associated development costs. Cadence is active in this field and was involved in the CFD investigation of a sonic boom and aerodynamic prediction of NASA Concept 25D Powered supersonic aircraft.

Hydro energy and Pumps

Investigation of the Motion of a Dual-Disc Check Valve using Transient CFD

Valve | FSI | AGR | Overset Grid | OMNIS™/Hexpress | FINE™/Marine

Check valves are commonly implemented in piping systems in order to control the fluid flow and to avoid reverse flows, since these can degrade the performance of the system and can cause structure failures. The opening of the valves is mainly caused by the hydraulic force which is the sum of viscous and pressure-based forces acting on the discs. A dual-disc check valve relies primarily on the spring force for closure. Here, the transient flow through a typical dual-disc check valve is investigated in FINE™/Marine and the opening process of the valve is analysed.

HIPER 2020

An electrified RIVA Powerboat - optimised

Marine | Optimisation | Powerboat | FINE™/Design3D | HEXPRESS™ | FINE™/Marine

This paper investigates the hydrodynamic performance of a classic wooden powerboat, the RIVA Junior, using CFD and driven by an environmentally friendly electric motor. The original hull shape is parametrised for variation in an optimisation chain: several operating points (speeds, displacements) and various objectives are considered, aiming to model different operational profiles of an electric propulsion. The goal is to derive hull design trends for both highest speeds for a given power, but also maximised range using the limited electric energy, and of course the trade-offs in between.

HiFi-TURB Project

Studying the Nature of Turbulence with Neural Concept’s Deep Learning Platform

Turbulence | Deep Learning | Data Mining | Aerospace

The HiFi-TURB project, which is coordinated by NUMECA , sets out a highly ambitious and innovative work programme to address influential deficiencies in turbulence modelling.

Particle Counter

Particle counters and the COVID-19 pandemic

Particles Counter | Particle Tracking | Pressure-base Solver | Flowfield Physics | FINE™/Open | Hexpress™

Revolutionizing the design of particle counters through advanced simulation to study the transmission mechanisms of COVID-19.

Blower Optimisation

Increasing the Performance of Industrial Blowers with NUMECA Optimisation Solutions

Optimisation | Blower | Industrial Equipment | AutoGrid5™ | HEXPRESS™ | FINE™/Turbo | FINE™/Open | FINE™/Design3D

Thanks to this two-part optimisation project, Illinois Blower managed to increase fan performance by up to 44% overall, while maintaining their original design constraints.

Hydrogen Aircraft

AeroDelft pushes the airline industry towards a sustainable future with liquid hydrogen aircraft

Aircraft | HEXPRESS™ | Open™

AeroDelft has one main goal; to prove and promote liquid hydrogen as an alternative to conventional fuels in aviation. Read how they use Cadence to get the aerodynamics right for minimum energy consumption.

Quadcopter Drone

Extending quadcopter drone flight time and range with OMNIS™ CFD simulation

NLH Simulation| Drone | Quadcopter | Flight Conditions | Propeller | External Aero | Optimisation | HEXPRESS™ | AutoGrid5™ | FINE™/Open | FINE™/Design3D

This case study demonstrates the aerodynamic simulation and optimisation of an industrial quadcopter drone (UAV) in hover mode, the most energy intensive mode of this type of drone.

RDO Propeller

Lowering fuel consumption through Robust Design Optimisation (RDO) of ship propellers

Marine | Propeller | Robust Design | Uncertainty Quantification | Optimisation | FINE™/Design | FINE™/Turbo | AutoGrid5™

Optimising the design of ship propellers is of key importance for the marine industry, as it has a direct impact on operational costs through its influence on fuel consumption and ship performance. Even the smallest improvement in the design of the propellers can save ship operators millions of dollars across an entire fleet.

Noise Reduction Aircraft

Pipistrel Mitigates Aviation Noise Emissions of DEP Systems for Electric Aircraft

Aircraft | Noise Emissions | Pressure Distribution | NLH | HEXPRESS™/Hybrid | FINE™/Open

FINE™/Open’s NLH method proved to be the most cost effective approach for acoustic optimisation analysis. The method offered a speed-up between one to two orders of magnitude in comparison to the TD analysis.

Refrigerant Compressor

Design and analysis of a centrifugal compressor for refrigeration cycles

Preliminary Design | Thermodynamic Tables | Refrigerant Compressor | COMPAL | AxCent | OMNIS™/AutoGrid | OMNIS™/Turbo

A two-stage chiller compressor – from velocity triangles to a 3D optimised design. Review the latest benchmark for our new customer from the refrigeration industry, Teqtoniq GmbH.

Open Rotor

Open Rotor

NLH | Turbomachinery | Aerospace

The case study presents the application of a highly efficient frequency based unsteady CFD method.The Non Linear Harmonic method (multi-rank/rank-2), is applied on contra rotating open rotor air engine including a pylon and the fuselage, to generate input data for acoustic simulations.